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MicroRNAs in breast cancer: New maestros defining the melody

      Highlights

      • Insights into the role of miRNAs in breast cancer pathogenesis.
      • Insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying breast cancer pathogenesis.
      • Insights into the benefit of miRNAs as a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer treatment.

      Abstract

      MicroRNAs, short non-coding single-stranded RNAs, are important regulators and gatekeepers of the coding genes in the human genome. MicroRNAs are highly conserved among species and expressed in different tissues and cell types. They are involved in almost all the biological processes as apoptosis, proliferation, cell cycle arrest and differentiation. Playing all these roles, it is not surprising that the deregulation of the microRNA profile causes a number of diseases including cancer. Breast cancer, the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in women, accounts for the highest cancer-related deaths worldwide. Different microRNAs were shown to be up or down regulated in breast cancer. MicroRNAs can function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors according to their targets. In this review, the most common microRNAs implicated in breast cancer are fully illustrated with their targets. Besides, the review highlights the effect of exosomal microRNA on breast cancer and the effect of microRNAs on drug and therapies resistance as well as the miRNA-based therapeutic strategies used until today.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette), ABCB1 (ATP Binding Cassette Subfamily B Member 1), ABCC1 (ATP Binding Cassette Subfamily C Member 1), ABCG2 (ATP Binding Cassette Subfamily G Member 2), AC (AteloCollagen), ADAM-17 (ADAM Metallopeptidase Domain 17), ADAR (Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA), ADIPOR1 (Adeponectin Receptor 1), Ago2 (Argonaute RISC Catalytic Component 2), Ago4 (Argonaute 4), AKT (AKT Serine/Threonine Kinase 1), AP-1 (Activator protein 1), ARID3B (AT-rich interactive domain 3B), AS (Antisense), ATG5 (Autophagy related 5), ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated), AVV (Adenoassociated Viral Vectors), AXL (AXL Receptor Tyrosine Kinase), BAX (Bcl-2-Associated X protein), BCL-2 (B-cell Lymphoma 2), BCL-W (BCL2 Like 2), BCL-Xl (BCL2 Like 1), BCSCs (Breast Cancer Stem Cells), BIC (B-cell Integration Cluster), BIM (BCL2 Like 11), BMI-1 (B Lymphoma Mo-MLV Insertion Region 1 Homolog), BRCA1 (Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene 1), BRCA2 (Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene 2), BAX (BCL2 Associated X), CAF (Cancer Associated Fibroblast), CCL19 (C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 19), CCND1 (Cyclin D1), CCR7 (C-C chemokine Receptor Type 7), CD-24 (Cluster of Differentiation 24), CD-44 (Cluster of Differentiation 44), CDC23 (Cell Division Cycle 23), CDH1 (Cadherin 1), CDK (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase), CDKN1B (Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor), circRNA (Circular RNA), c-Myc (MYC Proto-Oncogene), CTCL (Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma), DCIS (Ductal Carcinoma in situ), DDR (DNA Repair Response), DKK1 (Dickkopf WNT Signaling Pathway Inhibitor 1), E-cadherin (Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule), ECM (Extracellular Matrix), EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor), ELF4e (Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E), EMT (Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition), ERα (Estrogen Receptor Alpha), ERK (Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase), FAK (Focal Adhesion Kinase), Flip (CASP8 And FADD Like Apoptosis Regulator), FOSL1/FRA1 (Fos-Related Antigen 1), Foxo3a (Forkhead Box O3), GATA (GATA Binding Protein), GNA13 (G Protein Subunit Alpha 13), GO (Gaphene Oxide), GPCR (G protein-coupled receptor), GSK3β (Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta), HA (Hyaluronic Acid), HAX-1 (HCLS1 Associated Protein X-1), HCC (Hepatocellular Carcinoma), HDAC (Histone Deacetylase), HDR (Homology-Dependent Repair), HER-2 (Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2), HIF1-α (Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 Alpha), HMGA1 (High Mobility Group A1), HMGB1 (High Mobility Group Box 1), HOXB3 (Homeobox B3), HOXD10 (Homeobox D10), HuR (ELAV Like RNA Binding Protein 1), IL-6 (Interleukin-6), IL-24 (Interleukin 24), IGF2BP1 (Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1), JAK (Janus Kinase 2), JAMA (Junctional Adhering Molecule A), Kb (Kilo-Base Pair), KLF4 (Krüppel-Like Factor 4), KRAS (Kirsten Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog), LDHA (Lactate Dehydrogenase A), LIFR (Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor), LMTK3 (Lemur Tyrosine Kinase 3), LNA (Locked Nucleic Acid), MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase), MDM4 (Mouse Double Minute 4), MEK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase), MF (Mycosis Fungoides), MiRNA/MiR (MicroRNA), MKNK2 (MAP Kinase Interacting Serine/Threonine Kinase 2), MMP (Metalloproteinase), MSC (Mesenchymal Stem Cells), MT1-MMP (Matrix Metallopeptidase 14), MUC1 (Mucin 1), mTOR (Mechanistic Target Of Rapamycin Kinase), myc (MYC Proto-Oncogene ), N-cadherin (Neural Cadherin), NF-κB (Nuclear Factor Kappa B Subunit 1), NOTCH (Notch Receptor), NRAS (Neuroblastoma RAS Viral Oncogene Homolog), NSCLC (Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer), OncomiRs (Oncogenic MicroRNAs), PACT (Protein Activator of PKR), PAK1 (P21 Activated kinase), PDCD4 (Programmed Cell Death Protein 4), PEG (Polyethylene Glycol), PEI (Polyethylenimine), PgR (Progesterone), PHLDA1 (Pleckstrin Homology-Like Domain, Family A, member 1), PI3K (Phosphoinositide 3 Kinase), PIP2 (Phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate), PIP3 (Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate), PKCε (Protein Kinase C Epsilon), PLCG1 (Phospholipase C Gamma 1), PLL (Poly(L-lysine)), PNA (Peptide nucleic Acid), PRKCA (Protein Kinase C Alpha), PTEN (Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog), PUMA (P53 Up-Regulated Modulator of Apoptosis), P21 (Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A)), P27Kip1 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B)), P53 (Tumor Protein 53), RAD51 (DNA Repair Protein RAD51 Homolog 1), RAD52 (DNA Repair Protein RAD52 Homolog), RAF/RAF-1 (Raf-1 Proto-Oncogene, Serine/Threonine Kinase), Raf1A (Ras Association Domain Family 1A), RBP (RNA Binding Protein), REGγ (Proteasome Activator Subunit 3), RHOA (Ras Homolog Family Member A), RHOC (Ras Homolog Family Member C), RISC (RNA Induced Silencing Complex), SATB2 (Special AT-rich Sequence-Binding Protein-2), Smad3 (SMAD Family Member 3), Smad4 (SMAD Family Member 4), SNAIL (Snail Family Transcriptional Repressor 1), SOCS (Suppressor of cytokine Signaling), SRC (SRC Proto-Oncogene, Non-Receptor Tyrosine Kinase), STAT (Signal Transducer And Activator Of Transcription), SIRT1 (Sirtuin 1), TAMs (Tumor-Associated Macrophages), TamR (Tamoxifen-Resistant), TBK1 (TANK Binding Kinase 1), TGF-β1 (Transforming Growth Factor-β1), TIMP3 (Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase 3), TNBC (Triple Negative Breast Cancer), TRBP (Tar RNA Binding pPotein), TPM1 (Tropomyosin 1), TRF1 (Telomeric Repeat Binding Factor 1), TRPS1 (Trichorhino Phalangeal Syndrome Type 1), TsmiR (Tumor Suppressor MicroRNA), TWIST (Twist Family BHLH Transcription Factor 1), UTR (Untranslated Region), VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor), VEGFA (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A), XPO5 (Exportin 5), ZEB (Zinc Finger E-Box Binding Homobox), ZNF217 (Zinc Finger Protein 217), ZO-1 (Zonula Occludens)
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