Utilizing next-generation sequencing to characterize a case of acute myeloid leukemia with t(4;12)(q12;p13) in the absence of ETV6/CHIC2 and ETV6/PDGFRA gene fusions

      Highlights

      • The detection of PDGFRA rearrangements in myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms is critical for patient medical management.
      • Chromosomes and the FIP1L1/CHIC2/PDGFRA FISH probe set are insufficient to characterize t(4;12)(q12;p13) in hematologic neoplasms.
      • Next generation sequencing outperforms traditional cytogenetic techniques in the molecular characterization of t(4;12)(q12;p13).

      Abstract

      The t(4;12)(q12;p13) has been rarely reported in both myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with eosinophilia (ETV6/PDGFRA gene fusion) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (ETV6/CHIC2 gene fusion). The ability to accurately characterize t(4;12) is critical as myeloid neoplasms with PDGFRA rearrangements may be amenable to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. Herein, we describe a 60-year-old male with newly diagnosed AML and t(4;12)(q12;p13) by conventional chromosome studies. While the ETV6 break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probe set demonstrated a balanced ETV6 gene rearrangement, the FIP1L1/CHIC2/PDGFRA tri-color and PDGFRA break-apart FISH probe sets could not resolve the ETV6 gene fusion partner. Mate-pair sequencing (MPseq), a next-generation sequencing assay, was subsequently performed and identified an ETV6 gene rearrangement (at 12p13) that involved an intergenic chromosomal region at 4q12, located between the CHIC2 and PDGFRA gene regions. Having excluded involvement by the PDGFRA gene region, the patient will not be considered for TKI therapy at any point during his medical management. The accurate characterization of structural rearrangements by NGS-based technologies, as demonstrated in this case, highlights the clinical relevance and potential impact on patient medical management of modern cytogenetic techniques.

      Keywords

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