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Complex karyotype with double Philadelphia chromosome and T315I mutation results in blastic phase and extensive extramedullary infiltration in a chronic myeloid leukemia patient

      Abstract

      Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a common hematological malignancy originating from bone marrow stem cells. Chromosomal abnormalities can be seen in almost all cases, the most known anomaly being Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, a derivative chromosome resulting from a translocation between 9. and 22. chromosome. Other chromosomal abnormalities may be present in 10% of patients at diagnosis, although they emerge frequently during the acute transformation and can be associated with unfavorable significance. Also, point mutations like T315I in BCR-ABL fusion gene may arise during the course of the disease and thereby cause tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) resistance. Here, we report a BCR-ABL positive CML patient who was followed for 6 years in major molecular response (MMR), complete cytogenetic response (CCR), and complete hematological response (CHR). He had a sudden loss of hematological, cytogenetic, and molecular response with a very aggressive blastic course and extensive extramedullary infiltration, with T315I mutation, complex translocations, an extra Ph chromosome, and additional chromosomes. The patient who received intensive cytotoxic chemotherapy together with ponatinib treatment, which is effective for the T315I mutation, never went into remission, and there was no chance of transplantation because a suitable donor for HLA could not be found. Although these findings are not very rare individually, coexistence of complex karyotype and T315I mutation is not frequent and complicates clinical management. Our patient is the first case in literature with all disclosed findings together and indicates the importance of early detection of these chromosomal and molecular abnormalities.

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